Monday, August 19, 2019

Quran Burning Essay examples -- Terrorism politics Society

Quran Burning Can power be used for good? Unfortunately, there are many events in the past three years that overshadow the good that has been occurring in the world. People use different types of power to achieve the task at hand. The Quran burning, a recent controversial event that was supposed to occur on September 11, 2010, to honor all victims who passed away in the terrorist attacks. However, a small town church pastor named Terry Jones utilizes many powers to attempt to burn a holy book that was significant to a certain race, the Muslims. The question was how can one man who leads a small church of 50 people in Florida have the power to create uproar around the world? Through the United States Constitution, Terry Jones gained an immense amount of power which he abused in order to make an unethical statement about Islamic religion. First of all, the controversial Quran burning had many Americans debate the power of the constitution. Many people stated that the Quran burning was protected under the power of the first amendment, which guarantees the right to free speech. Jones wanted people to stop believing and worshipping a religion; and his way of expressing free speech was initiating a burning ceremony (Kiser 1). Being a Muslim is the â€Å"Un-American thing, according to Jones, and he is using his right of free speech to suppress the rights of Muslims to worship their religion. In Kiser’s article, â€Å"The Controversy over International Burn a Quran Day† he writes, â€Å"The Constitution of the United States does advocate, ‘Free Speech’, but it remains dim on the offensiveness of that free speech. The Constitution also advocates â€Å"Freedom of Religion†, but the United States remains a country where religion is abused and suppressed... ...nt could have potentially put the whole world at war, especially between Christians and Muslims. Works Cited Berry, Wendell. â€Å"Thoughts in the Presence of Fear.† Yagelski 474-479. Dog, Mary Crow. â€Å"Civilize Them with a Stick.† Yagelski 429-437. Kiser, M L. â€Å"The Controversy over International Burn a Quran Day.† Helium. N.p., 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Levitz, Jennifer, and Jonathan Weisman. â€Å"Pastor Keeps Pushing to Tie Protest with Islamic Center.† The Wall Street Journal. N.p., 2010. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. Rashid, Ayesha. â€Å"Burn a Quran Day and the Power of Ignorance.† The Daily Progress. Media General Communications Holdings, 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Somaiya, Ravi. â€Å"Should We Cover the Quran Burning?† Newsweek. N.p., 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Yagelski, Robert P, ed. Reading Our World: Conversations in Context. 2nd ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010. N. pag. Print.

Philosophy Examined :: Detrminism Conflicts

Assignment: Comment on the Following Statements 1)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Out of the people edited in Abel or discussed by Palmer, the following are hard determinists†¦ Well, Palmer only discusses two hard determinists: B.F. Skinner, and Sigmund Freud. Out of the texts read in Abel, Abel discusses Skinner and D’Holbach as hard determinists. 2)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hard determinism conflicts with some of our ordinary beliefs and experiences. For example: On the one hand, we are raised to believe that we are free, that we posses freedom of thought and action. If we come to a fork in the road, we can either go left or right, either choice is a free choice. A hard determinist would have us believe that our actions are determined, hence, unfree. If the hard determinists theory were in fact true, then, if we were to come to a fork in the road, what use would it be to choose the right, or the left path? For out decision has already been determined, according to the hard determinist point of view. Frankly, I find the idea of hard determinism utterly ridiculous, and incredibly hard to defend. 3)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  If hard determinism is true, then people cannot be held responsible for their actions. This statement is true. For if hard determinism is true, then our actions are determined. Meaning that we have no control over our own actions. Therefore, we cannot be held responsible for out actions, because, we are not responsible for them, for they were determined. If this is indeed true, then the worlds judicial systems have been making mistakes for several thousands of years. 4)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It is possible to interpret Freud as being committed to hard determinism. It is also possible to interpret Freud as believing in freedom. This statement is making two claims, which may be interpreted differently by different people. Thus needing some explanation. It is true that Freud was committed to hard determinism, for he believed that the majority of a person’s actions are motivated through the subconscious mind, the subconscious being a driving force in the decision. Subconscious decisions are not free, for the person is not aware of the force of the subconscious. The second part of the above statement is in a sense, true. Freud, being committed to hard-determinism, could not believe it direct freedom. However, Freud did believe that a person could change, thus gaining some control over their actions, and that in a sense, is freedom (i.e. the case of the woman who kept choosing partners who beat her).

Sunday, August 18, 2019

First Confession Essay examples -- essays research papers

Mrs. Ryan and the Priest In Frank O’Connor’s story â€Å"First Confession†, Mrs. Ryan and the priest are different. Mrs. Ryan and the priest approach Jackie differently and have different affects on him. Mrs. Ryan makes Jackie feel like a sinner in her approach to him. She teaches him how to examine his heart by asking himself a few questions, â€Å"Did we take the name of the Lord, our God in Vain? Did we honor our father and mother? Did we love our neighbors as ourselves? Did we covet our neighbors goods?†(614). This made Jackie feel like he is a sinner because he feels that he was not honoring his grandmother and feels that he coveted Nora’s penny she got every week from their grandmother. Mrs. Ryan affects Jackie by making him feel that confession is scary. After telling her story about the ma...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Interpersonal Communication Essay

There are many ways that my culture influences my self-concept. First let’s take a look at the many kinds of cultures there are. Culture is defined as the relatively specialized lifestyle of a group of people that is passed on from one generation to the next through communication, not through genes. Culture is transmitted from one generation to another through enculturation, the process by which you learn the culture into which you’re born (your native culture). Parents, peer groups, schools, religious institutions, and government agencies are the main teachers of culture. Through enculturation you develop an ethnic identity, a commitment to the beliefs and philosophy of your culture that, not surprisingly, can act as a protective shield against discrimination. A different process of learning culture is acculturation, the process by which you learn the rules and norms of a culture different from your native culture. In acculturation your original or native culture is modified through direct contact with or exposure to a new and different culture. Cultures, of course, differ in a wide variety of ways; and for purposes of communication, the difference that probably comes to mind first is that of languages. Certainly, cultures do differ in language spoken and understood. Masculine cultures emphasize success and socialize their people to be assertive, ambitious and competitive. Members of masculine cultures are thus more likely to confront conflicts directly and to competitively fight out any differences; they are more likely to emphasize win or lose strategies. Feminine cultures emphasize the quality of life and socialize their people to be modest and to emphasize close interpersonal relationships. Members of feminine cultures are thus more likely to emphasize compromise and negotiation in resolving conflicts; they are more likely to seek win – win solutions. Members of cultures with high ambiguity tolerance do not feel threatened by unknown situations; uncertainty is normal part of life and people accept it as it comes. Members of cultures with low ambiguity tolerance do much to avoid uncertainty and have a great deal of anxiety by not knowing what will happen next; they see uncertainty as threatening and as something that must be counteracted. In an individualist culture members are responsible for themselves and perhaps their immediate family. In a collectivist culture members are responsible for the entire group. In a high context culture much of the information in communication is in the context or in the person. In a low context culture most of the information is explicitly stated in the verbal message. In my every day life I use more of the intercultural communication. Intercultural communication is communication between persons who have different cultural beliefs, values, or ways of behaving. Being that I am African-American and my fiancà ©e is Caucasian my culture changes my self-concept. Being a male you assume that that’s the dominant one in a relationship or what not. I believe that being a male you should set the example for the household. It’s not my way or the highway is the wrong approach. It’s more of a compromise or we agree to disagree. I think that shows masculine. I can say race plays a lot but I would be lying. That would go back to a stereotype. A stereotype is a fixed impression of a group of people. From the outside looking in age would be a stereotype as well. I’ve recently turned twenty-five so that plays into another stereotype. Half way to fifty; what are you doing with your life. Or the stereotype of a black guy with a white woman. You hear it all but its all about your self-concept. I’m comfortable in my own skin. There were more important things of listening that I didn’t realize. One purpose of listening is to learn, something you do regularly as you listen to lectures in college. One of the communication skills most important to healthy relationships is the ability to listen to friends, romantic partners, family members, colleagues, and just about anyone with whom you come into contact with. You also listen to influence other people’s attitudes, beliefs, values, opinions and behaviors. Listening to play music or the rustle of leaves often serves a play purpose. Listening to help is something we experience growing up when our parents listen or, sometimes, don’t listen to our concerns and help us solve our problems. I used the five-stage model of listening as a reference guide. The barrier I noticed I have is receiving the information. By receiving the information wrong I didn’t understand what the other person was trying to get at. On the occasions when I used all five stages of listening correctly; my strong points were evaluating and responding. Which comes back to having good intercultural communication. I noticed how other people listened as well. I think if people would follow the five step process to listening they would have no problem. There would be less confusion as well. Week 5 Journal I have witnessed stages of conflict in one of my relationships by being the one directly involved in the conflict and by being the mediator and actually sitting back and observing. I experienced verbal aggressiveness on a first hand ba sis. It tears a person down from the inside out. I’ve experienced physical aggressiveness. Un like verbal aggressiveness this tears your down from the outside in. I show non verbal power just by the way I carry myself and display my athourity. Im not really sure how I would increase my personal power†¦its more a over time thing than changing it overnight. Nonverbal communication is communication without words. You communicate nonverbally when you gesture, smile or frown, widen your eyes, move your chair closer to someone, wear jewelry, touch someone, or raise your vocal volume, or even when you say nothing. The crucial aspect of nonverbal communication is that the message you send is in some way received by one or more other people. If you gesture while alone in your room and no one is there to see you, then, most theorists would argue, communication has not taken place. The same, of course, is true of verbal messages: If you recite a speech and no one hears it, then communication has not taken place. Body gestures are an especially useful classification in kinesics, or the study of communication through body movement, identifies five types: emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, and adaptors. Illustrators make your communications more vivid and help to maintain your listener’s attention. They also help to clarify and intensify your verbal messages. In saying, â€Å"Let’s go up,† for example, you probably move your head and perhaps your finger in an upward direction. In describing a circle or a square, you more than likely make circular or square movements with your hands. Research points to another advantage of illustrators: that they increase your ability to remember. People who illustrated their verbal messages with gestures remembered some 20 percent more than those who didn’t gesture. Affect displays are the movements of the face that convey emotional meaning are the expressions that show anger and fear, happiness and surprise, eagerness and fatigue. Regulators monitor, maintain, or control the speaking of another individual. When you listen to another, you’re not passive; you nod your head, purse your lips, adjust your eye focus, and make various paralinguistic sounds such as â€Å"mm-mm†or â€Å"tsk.†Regulators are culture-bound: Each culture develops its own rules for the regulation of conversation. Adaptors satisfy some need and usually occur without conscious awareness; they’re unintentional movements that usually go unnoticed. Nonverbal researchers identify three types of adaptors based on their focus, direction, or target: self-adaptors, alter-adaptors, and object-adaptors. Self- adaptors usually satisfy a physical need, generally serving to make you more comfortable; examples include scratching your head to relieve an itch, moistening your lips because they feel dry, or pushing your hair out of your eyes.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Philosophy †Is Memory Reliable Essay

How would I prove that my memory or reasoning processes are reliable? There really is no good way to answer this question. My first thought was, well that should be easy, because I can prove my memory is reliable by the fact that I remember where class is every day that I show up. If I can remember where the classroom is, that must show my memory is reliable. But then I realized that I’m relying on a memory to come up with that example. This makes the question seem like a paradox to even try and answer, because in order to figure out if there is a way to prove my memory is reliable, I must use my memory to recall memories that might apply, and I must also assume the accuracy of the memories I might draw from as example. I cannot prove memory reliability by using logic drawn from the assumption that the memories I used are reliable. This seems to create a fallacy in logic before even getting started. In reality it seems easy to say that yes, although our memories are sometimes wrong, generally more often than not they are right. We know this because we recall from our memory many times each day to do the simplest tasks. If our memory was that flawed, we would be unable to survive on a day to day basis. Where do I get water? How do I get food? How do I drive a car? While this does show that we are able to rely on our memories to complete everyday tasks, it doesn’t prove our memory is consistently true. We cannot be sure that any memory we’ve ever had actually happened exactly the way we remember it (unless material sources are used, like video or pictures to back up the memory) because of a multitude of problems with memory like delusion and distortion. Memories can be easily manipulated and altered in many different ways, from simple re-telling where little details may be unwittingly changed each time a memory is told, to the power of suggestion in which an entirely false memory can be implanted into a persons mind and believed to be true by that person. Although these memories may seem very real to us, even to the point where we are willing to fight for their reliability, they are still factually false. This actually happens a lot! Although it practice these issues with memory exist, they are mostly ignored because we typically use other methods beyond memory alone to help collaborate what we remember. We are validated by others who share the same memory, photos, ect. So although in a philosophical world it seems impossible to find solid clear evidence that memory is truly reliable, but it seems silly, and even dangerous to continually doubt that memory can be reliably called upon. For example, I decide to cross the road without looking both ways because I cannot be sure that being hit by a car would kill me. I might have seen and heard of people being killed by cars in the past, but if I doubt my own memory how could I be sure that speeding cars have the potential to actually kill people. Because of this seemingly correct logic I might then be hit by a car and become a victim of what many would say is clear common sense. So although there is no good way to prove the reliability of memory, we must still rely on it all the same.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Washington Square (Henry James)

Washington Square  is a short novel by  Henry James. Originally published in 1880 as a serial in Cornhill Magazine  and  Harper's New Monthly Magazine, it is a structurally simple  tragicomedy  that recounts the conflict between a dull but sweet daughter and her brilliant, domineering father. The plot of the novel is based upon a true story told to James by his close friend, British actress  Fanny Kemble. [1]  The book is often compared to  Jane Austen's work for the clarity and grace of its  prose and its intense focus on family relationships.James was hardly a great admirer of Jane Austen, so he might not have regarded the comparison as flattering. In fact, James was not a great fan of Washington Square  itself. He tried to read it over for inclusion in the  New York Edition  of his fiction (1907–1909) but found that he couldn't, and the novel was not included. Other readers, though, have sufficiently enjoyed the book to make it one of the more popu lar works of the Jamesian canon. ————————————————- Structure The novel is told from a  third-person omniscient  point of view, although we don't know anything about the narrator.The narrator often offers his comments directly to the reader. The novella begins at a distance from the characters, describing the background of the Sloper family. It then recounts in detail the story of Catherine's romance with Morris Townsend. When Morris jilts her, the focus shifts back to a long view. As James puts it: â€Å"Our story has hitherto moved with very short steps, but as it approaches its termination it must take a long stride. † The final few chapters are taken once more in short steps, ending with the striking vignette of Catherine's refusal of Morris. ——————————————â€⠀Ã¢â‚¬â€ Major themes The bitterest irony in the story is that Dr Sloper, a brilliant and successful physician, is exactly right about Morris Townsend, and yet he shows cruelty to his defenseless and loving daughter. If the doctor had been incorrect in his appraisal of the worthless Townsend, he would only be a stock villain. As it is, the doctor's head works perfectly but his heart has grown cold after the death of his beautiful and gifted wife. Catherine gradually grows throughout the story into right judgment of her situation.As James puts it: â€Å"From her point of view the great facts of her career were that Morris Townsend had trifled with her affection, and that her father had broken its spring. Nothing could ever alter these facts; they were always there, like her name, her age, her plain face. Nothing could ever undo the wrong or cure the pain that Morris had inflicted on her, and nothing could ever make her feel towards her father as she felt in her younger years. â₠¬  Catherine will never be brilliant, but she learns to be clear-sighted. ————————————————-Literary significance ; criticism â€Å"Everybody likes  Washington Square, even the denigrators of Henry James†, wrote  critic  Donald Hall, and most other commentators have echoed the sentiment. Although James himself regarded the novel with near contempt, readers have enjoyed its linear  narrative  technique, its straightforward prose (far removed from the convoluted language of James's later career), and the sharply etched portraits of the four main characters. Even the rusty plot revolving around â€Å"the will† has charmed many critics with its old-fashioned simplicity.Catherine's slow but unmistakable development into independence and wisdom is a notable success for James and has been much appreciated by critics and readers in general. Henry James,   OM  (15 April 1843  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 28 February 1916) was an American-born writer, regarded as one of the key figures of 19th-century  literary realism. James alternated between America and Europe for the first 20 years of his life, after which he settled in England, becoming a  British subject  in 1915, one year before his death.He is primarily known for the series of novels in which he portrays the encounter of Americans with Europe and Europeans. His method of writing from the point of view of a character within a tale allows him to explore issues related to  consciousness  and  perception, and his style in later works has been compared to  impressionist painting. James contributed significantly to  literary criticism, particularly in his insistence that writers be allowed the greatest possible freedom in presenting their view of the world.James was born in New York City into a wealthy family. His father, Henry James Sr. , was one of the best-known intellectuals in m id-19th-century America. In his youth James travelled back and forth between Europe and America. He studied with tutors in Geneva, London, Paris, Bologna, and Bonn. At the age of 19 he briefly attended  Harvard Law School, but preferred reading literature to studying law. James published his first short story,  A Tragedy of Error, at age 21, and devoted himself to literature.James is one of the major figures of  trans-Atlantic  literature. His works frequently juxtapose characters from the  Old World  (Europe), embodying a feudal civilization that is beautiful, often corrupt, and alluring, and from the  New World  (United States), where people are often brash, open, and  assertive  and embody the virtues—freedom and a more highly evolved moral character—of the new American society. James explores this clash of personalities and cultures, in stories of personal relationships in which power is exercised well or badly.His protagonists were often young American women facing oppression or abuse. Novels * Watch and Ward  (1871) * Roderick Hudson  (1875) * The American  (1877) * The Europeans  (1878) * Confidence  (1879) * Washington Square  (1880) * The Portrait of a Lady(1881) * The Bostonians  (1886)| * The Princess Casamassima(1886) * The Reverberator  (1888) * The Tragic Muse  (1890) * The Other House  (1896) * The Spoils of Poynton  (1897) * What Maisie Knew  (1897) * The Awkward Age  (1899) * The Sacred Fount  (1901)|Short stories and novellas * A Tragedy of Error  (1864) My Friend Bingham * Poor Richard A Day of Days * The Story of a Masterpiece The Story of a Year * A Most Extraordinary Case A Landscape Painter

Wednesday, August 14, 2019


There are various ways for the employees to voice out their dissatisfaction_ One of the ways is by using picketing. Under section 40 of Industrial Relation Act allow workers to attend at or near their workplace when they have a trade dispute. The purpose of picketing are communicate issues to the public and members the employers. Picketing also held at lunch time, and before or after working hours. Picketing is enforceable by law as long as it must not intimidate anyone. Must not obstruct the entrance or exit the organization. 3. Summarization National Union of Bank employees (NUMB) held another picket on the issue for discriminating its Muslim employees and also In support with the 27 employees that have been sacked by the bank. The picket was held at Clan Tuna Appear. The Muslim employees had been discriminated by disallowed them from performing their prayers in the office by the management. They had been sacked because they did not agree to transferred to other branches. They had been discussed with the upper management but no action taken by the authorities to settle the Issues.They will intone to fight for the workers until Hong Leone Bank reinstate the sacked 27 employees. The Mole when contacted with Shirring Oarsman officer of Hong Leone Bank stated that the fact of disallowed Muslim employees was untrue statement. They are not allowed because sugar Is located In a secured area as they were not the staff of the branches and they just only the NUMB members. No one is allowed to entered into a secured area as it has been a standard security policy of any financial institution.She also stated that its staff had been allowed to perform their prayers thou any prejudice. 33 Mall Issues The Issues arises Is discriminates Its Muslim employees by disallowed them to perform their prayers at Sugar. As the officer offing Leone state that the Muslim employees is not the staff of Hong Leone Bank. Many negotiations had been taken by the employees but all the negotiati ons is not success because there Is no action taken by them. The Muslim officials In the Human Resource Ministry,the Government and the authorities failed to protect Islam and Muslim employees.Besides that, 27 employees in the Hong Leone Bank were sacked because they did to agree to be transferred to other branches. 3. 4 Background Issue Among 300 of NUMB members held a picket at Clan Tuna Appear regarding to the Issues of discriminating Muslim employees by disallowed them to perform their Solar at Sugar and over 27 employees were sacked. This is because Sugar is located at the secured area. It is a security standard policy no one can entered into that area except for the staff of Hong Leone Bank. The officer of Hong Leone Bank state that they are not the Hong Leone Bank but they are NUMB members.Abdul Jamie as Vice President f Numb members reiterated the statement that Numb members are also the Hong Leone Employees. During the time of 2 December until 18 December they are still und er Hong Leone employment. NUMB General Secretary enforce Balance Ministry to take legal action for these discrimination. Hong Leone Bank cannot said that NUMB members is not Hong Lemon's employees. Besides that, over 27 employees were 1 OFF discussions were held but none of the ministry take action over these issues. Tan stated that the transfer is necessary to increase the effectiveness and efficiency ofHong Leone Bank. 3. 5 Analysis Many of the Numb members held a pickets to ensure that their dissatisfaction can being heard by the public. Among the issues arises is the discrimination towards Muslim employees. Muslim employees had been disallowed to perform their prayer at the Sugar. Department of Labor will remind the employers the right of Muslim employees. Besides that over 27 employees were sacked. Their termination is not valid without a valid reasons as they disagree to transfer to other branches and then they were sacked.For the dismissal of the contract the employers should at least give notice of termination. Under section 12 of Employment Act 1955 state that, Either party to a contract of service may at any time give to the other party notice of his intention to terminate such contract of service. In the Industrial Relation Act section 20 provides machinery for an employers to dismissed its employees. The employees can make claims if they believe their termination is without a valid reasons.If the Court agree that their termination is without a valid reasons under section 14 of the Employment act 1955,then the Court will reinstated their termination. 3. 6 Recommendation The company may used Conciliation to solve their problems. By using third party as a conciliator. Conciliator is one of the officer of Department of Industrial Relation. The conciliator will meet the both parties whether separately or Jointly. The conciliator will briefing the problems and help the parties to achieves mutual agreement. This way can be used if the negotiations is not useful.The conciliator will give the recommendations and advice. 3. Conclusion Discrimination on the Muslim employees should be stopped by the government. Under article 11 of the Federal Constitution state that every person have the right to practice their own religion and to propagate it. The employer has no right to obstruct Muslim employees to perform their prayers. Regarding the issues of termination without valid reason is void. As it contravene with the Employment Act. The employer must give a notice of a services before dismiss their employees. If the issues can be settled it would create harmonious work environment. Inflation The cost of inflation depends on two cases; perfectly anticipated inflation and unanticipated inflation. Anticipated inflation is defined when individuals are able to make accurate predictions of inflation, they can take steps to protect themselves from its effects. Also, trade unions might use their bargaining power to negotiate for increases in money wages to protect the real wages of union members. Households may want to switch savings into accounts offering a higher rate of interest or into other financial assets where capital gains might exceed price inflation.Businesses can adjust their prices and lenders can adjust interest rates. However, businesses may also seek to hedge against future price movements by transacting in â€Å"forward markets†. For example, many airlines such as Bahamas-Air may buy their fuel months in advance as a protection or ‘hedge' against fluctuations in world oil prices. In Contrast, When inflation is unanticipated, individuals do not reali ze that they should protect their real purchasing power against a rising price level until the price level has already risen and their real purchasing power has already fallen.In this instance, there will be gainers and losers, in terms of purchasing power, from the inflation. In general, unanticipated inflation causes a misallocation of resources. Firms, unions, banks, will push prices and wages up. Those who can do it best will cause a misallocation of resources. For example suppose workers at manufacturing companies in the Bahamas wage increases, and public employees don't. Then, resources (labor) will be reallocated due to the relative market power of the different workers.But more importantly, lenders such as Banks will lose with respect to borrowers, giving individuals an incentive to borrow. For instance, when Bahamian people take out mortgages in order to buy houses at fixed interest rates, they end up aying back less in real terms than they had contracted for, wealth is the n redistributed from banks and other financial institutions to homeowners with mortgages. In relative terms, borrowing becomes cheaper than paying in cash.Another example would be if individuals who retire on pensions that are fixed in nominal amount will find the values of those pensions in terms of the goods they buy eroded as years pass, in this case the redistribution is from pensioners to the owners of insurance companies and other financial institutions that have contracted to pay them fixed dollar amounts. Alternatively, individuals have the incentive to spend now before the price level rises further.This however, will push prices up even faster, and may cause the inflation rate to accelerate and if uncertainty continue to increase, consumers and investors become less certain about the future, as prices rise in an unanticipated fashion. They may change their pattern of spending, and be less willing to undertake projects that take a long time to payoff. The Costs of Hyperinfla tion. Hyperinflation is define when the prices of most goods and services skyrocket, usually more than 50% a month. It usually starts when a country's Federal government begins printing money to pay for fiscal spending.As the money supply increases, prices creep up as in regular inflation. However, instead of tightening the money supply to lower inflation, the government keeps printing more money to pay for spending. Once consumers realize what is happening, they expect intlation. T causes them to buy more now to avoid paying a higher price later. This boosts demand, causing inflation to spiral out of control. The only winners in hyperinflation are those who borrowed before the hyperinflation. Fortunately, the Bahamas have ever experienced hyperinflation but other countries such as Germany and Zimbabwe has.But if the Bahamas was to experience hyperinflation like Germany, the consumers can expect 1 . Inflation Expectations and Wage Demands: Price increases lead to higher wage demands as people try to maintain their real living standards. This process is known as a Wage-price spiral'. 2. Arbitrary Re-Distributions of Income: Inflation tends to hurt people in Jobs with poor bargaining positions in the labour market – for example people in low paid Jobs with little or no trade union protection may see the real value of their pay fall.Inflation can also favour borrowers at the expense of savers as inflation erodes the real value of existing debts. 3. Business Planning and Investment: Inflation can disrupt business planning. Budgeting becomes difficult because of the uncertainty created by rising inflation of both prices and costs – and this may reduce planned investment spending. 4. Competitiveness and Unemployment: Inflation is a possible cause of higher unemployment in the medium term if one country experiences a much higher rate of inflation than another, leading to a loss of international competitiveness and a subsequent worsening of their trade p erformance.