Saturday, December 7, 2019

Concept Of Sensitivity Analysis Samples †

Question: Discuss about the Concept Of Sensitivity Analysis. Answer: Sensitivity Analysis Sensitivity Analysis can be thought of as a way to better the communication between the frame workers and the decision takers as it sets up a much more convincing, trustworthy, credible and comprehensible media of networks between the two. The sensitivity analysis also provides a medium to check the quantification and the details about a particular process so as to provide information of the relationship maintained between different input and output variables (Tian, 2013). This analysis is of great significance as its help in building a framework which can detect the loopholes in the project. Sensitivity analysis provides numerous ways for the management to detect and measure the flaws in the invested project. This analysis also proves to be boon to the management when a matter of a major variable deviation is concerned. In such cases, it helps the management in estimating the circumstances that would follow. This analysis is also useful in detecting the basics of a project which can be modified to get better results. The undertaking of a project always has some threats involved and no organization can guarantee of earning profits. But the company still tries its level; best to eliminate the threat as far as possible by keeping an eye on the procedures so as to earn some capital. It is largely seen that sensitivity analysis is always followed before owing to a new venture (Damodaran, 2012). This process helps to detect the flaws in the venture and thus eases the way to earn profits by altering the net profit amount of the undertaken project. It is the duty of the manager to highlight the threats involved in the venture taking into attention that the sensitivity analysis is thoroughly followed and the threats involved in the undertaken project are detected on time. Concept of sensitivity analysis in relation to capital budgeting Thus from the above explanation, it is proved that the sensitivity analysis is a keen way to get an estimate of the positivity that the project will achieve in the upcoming years. The present financial condition, interest rates, and inflation rates are some of the deciding factors that were followed while detecting or budgeting the cash inflows and outflows as per Graham Smart (2012) which thought that sensitivity analysis was a process to be followed while performing the above two operations. When it comes to capital budgeting then the sensitivity analysis can be used in association with NVP and IRR which yields better results. In a case let the IRR be recorded as 10% and the cost recorded as 5%. In such matters, the IRR is seen to be greater than the cost of the capital. These types of ventures are very much beneficial for the company as the rates of return from the projects are high which will also attract the investors (Pianosi et. al, 2015). If the above case is vice-versa then the company will be bound to suffer a loss and thus the company is advised not to undertake such a venture. Scenario analysis Sensitivity analysis can also be used in a way to measure interest rates so as to reinvest the return in any other beneficial project for gaining capital. This kind of analysis also provides a way to put an estimate of the values of the project on the basis of major situations. All the alteration in the values is based on the current situation known as the scenario that follows the principle of analysis. Scenario Analysis has proven to be a method that can be relied upon so as to detect the threat in the undertaken project which can be minor or massive fully depending on the situation that prevails during the project undertaking. The records presented after the analysis can be a boon to the investors in knowing the risks which prevail on their part. A whole lot of ways are open for grabbing a plot of scenario analysis. From many possible ways of seeking this analysis the way of collective analysis is explaining the standard of monthly or daily returns on security and then computing the expected value of every portfolio that create profits having their standard deviation lower or above than the average rate of return. By using this type of analysis the estimator can have a vision of the guarantee about the changes in the value of the portfolio during a fixed span of time. Scenario analysis provides a clear cut way to measure the successfulness of the investment so as to depict the circumstances that prevail due to the alteration in the value of certain variables and portfolios. If the respected person is an investor then he can make use of the scenario analysis in such a way so as to get an idea of the financial position of the company while claiming credit purchase which is different from storing funds in the form of cash purchases. Apart from the investors the company too can use the scenario analysis to find out the probability of the successful outputs arising from the decisions finalized over a matter (James, 2010). For example, selecting one out of the two storefronts and facilities from the organizational functions can be undertaken. All these processes may include discussions about alternation in fees, fees comprised with utilities and any kind of positivity or insurance that may be grabbed from one end but not from the other. Concept of scenario analysis in relation to capital budgeting The method of scenario analysis is a detecting process to check the success ratio of a particular project. It can be seen upon as a scanning method as per the circumstances that prevail during the moment. Berk and Van Binsbergen said that this analysis is the perfect way of finding all the probable outputs about the successfulness of the undertaken project. It is even remarked that this process is crucial in detecting the flaws and risks that prevail in the undertaken project. By using this process it is easy for the management to detect any of the serious situations that arise during the project undertaking (Brigham Daves, 2012). For example, the Woolworths Limited during the expansion of their business always follows to conduct the scenario analysis so as to detect any prevailing risk. It is always important to follow the scenario analysis so that the flaws in the particular project can be detected. The company can also be in a beneficial state if it keeps an eye on the rate of the NVP and also on the IRR which is recorded during work so as to gain much more capital than expected. It is also very much necessary for the company to keep a track of both NVP and IRR not just during the time of project undertaking but at different times like inflation and also during the depression (James, 2010). Overall discussion proves that the scenario analysis proves to be a boon which helps the organizat6ion to take faster and accurate decisions. Break Even Analysis Break even analysis is a potent tool as it helps in answering various questions that pertain to the companys profitability relating to the product or the service. It helps in answering several questions like the minimum sales that are needed so that the company does not face any loss or the sales do not decline. Before venturing into a new project, it is important that to conduct a break even analysis as it leads to answering questions that are critical in nature such as the sensitivity of the profit of the business in relation to the increase or decrease in the sales (Guerard, 2013). The break even analysis gives a strong knowledge of the variable and the fixed cost that is associated with the business. It supports the manager to research and segregate the cost of the company into the fixed and variable cost. The feasibility of the project can be done with the aid of capital budgeting and break even helps in making a critical decision so that the venture can be profitable (Vollmer, 2014). The break even analysis will help to know how the business will shape up in the upcoming scenario and if the venture should be selected. The manager must know the break even so that proper decision making can be done and is projected with the help of the formula: BEQ FC / (P-VC), Where BEQ = Break-even quantity FC = fixed costs P = Average price per unit, and VC = Variable costs per unit. When it comes to the aspect of break even in capital budgeting. It is vital to know at what point the revenue will exceed the cost. A hypothetical example has been set below Fixed Costs Variable Costs Labor $2,000 Flour $0.20 Rent $2,000 Yeast $0.05 Cost of insurance $800 Water $0.02 Advertisement $500 Butter $4.00 Technical Fees $400 Pepper $1.00 Total $5,700 Total $5.27 Going by the example above, the variable cost of the burger stands at $5.27 or more which means that the cost coverage can be done easily. However, if the charge of the burger peaks $10 for the finished goods than $4.73 will be received as an addition to the fixed cost and thereby the restaurant will have profit. Hence, the break even concept can be used to know the business performance. Simulation It can be defined as a process that dwells on statistics and observes the probability distribution, random numbers. Such is determined in advance so that the result that is risky in nature can be known or traced. In this scenario, the manager puts to practice the elements of the cash flow in a model based on mathematics and replicate the method various times (Wang et. al, 2016). Hence, it is an effective mechanism that results in enhancement of the probability distribution of returns that are highlighted. The method of development of random numbers and using the probability distribution for the inflow of cash and outflow enables the managers to know the value for each variable (Berk, 2015). When the submission of the values happens then substitution of the values happens into the model and provides the NPV. When the same mechanism is repeated then the probability distribution of NVPB can be generated in an easy manner. Simulation can be defined as a strong spreadsheet tool that helps the managers to know the risk and the complexity that is involved in the discounted cash flow analysis. The main advantage of the simulation appears in the case that the mechanism covers the shortfalls that are seen in sensitivity and scenario analysis by assessing the effect of all variable combinations. The utilization is mainly seen in the case of traditional capital budgeting because it considers the form of sampling of repeated random from the distribution of probability that is based on the cash flow to come to the different profile that is linked to the cash flow in the NPV of a project for a specific plan (Brealey et. al, 2011) Simulation provides solidity to the real time decision making by using the model that is linked to equations or any identity so that a better view of the functioning can be gathered. This method is used by the managers as a mathematical equation that finds the variables that are primary in nature that contains a vivid elucidation of the freedom that finds the important primary variables and contains the description of the freedom that appears between the variables and various time scenarios. This method is well directed to the major variables and links to the data of the past. This is a vital aspect when it relates to the process of decision making (Northington, 2011). This helps the managers to understand the concept of risk return trade off rather depending on specific estimation. Therefore, simulation helps the managers to come up with a real life scene and the same can be utilized to know the project feasibility. If a project has a probability of 98% success and IRR stands more than the capital it will appear that the project is strong and contains minute chances of failure. On the other hand, when it is involved in projects that are high yielding they are subjected to high risk and nothing appears without a stake. Therefore, the probability of the NPV cannot reach 100% as a project that earns the capital cost is riskier in nature (Parrino et. al, 2012). Hence, simulation can be used by the managers to trace the prejudice of the project developer. References Berk, J., DeMarzo, P. Stangeland, D 2015, Corporate Finance, Canadian Toronto: Pearson Canada. Brealey, R, Myers, S. Allen, F 2011, Principles of corporate finance, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Brigham, E. Daves, P 2012, Intermediate Financial Management , USA: Cengage Damodaran, A 2012, Investment Valuation, New York: John Wiley Sons. Graham, J Smart, S 2012, Introduction to corporate finance, Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning. Guerard, J. 2013,Introduction to financial forecasting in investment analysis, New York, NY: Springer. James P. D 2010, Topics in Capital Budgeting, viewed 7 September 2017 Northington, S 2011, Finance, New York, NY: Ferguson's. Parrino, R, Kidwell, D. Bates, T 2012, Fundamentals of corporate finance, Hoboken, Pianosi, F., Sarrazin, F Wagener, T 2015, A matlab toolbox for global sensitivity analysis, Environmental Modelling Software,vol. 70, pp.80-85. Tian, W 2013, A review of sensitivity analysis methods in building energy analysis, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,vol. 20, pp.411-419. Vollmer, M 2014, A Beta-return Efficient Portfolio Optimisation Following the CAPM: An Analysis of International Markets and Sectors. Springer. Wang, C.P., Huang, H.H. Hu, J.S 2016, Reverse-Engineering and Real OptionsAdjusted CAPM in the Taiwan Stock Market, Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, pp.1-18.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Sweatshops Development

Table of Contents Brief history Arguments for sweatshops Anti-sweatshops arguments A case in San Francisco Fighting sweatshops Conclusion Works Cited Sweatshop is a term used to refer to any working environment whose conditions are unacceptable. The overriding characteristics of the industry are long working hours and poor payments regardless of the law provisions in those countries. In most cases, violation of child labor laws is prevalent and employees are subject to abuse by the employer without an easy way out.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Sweatshops Development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The definition used in the United States for a sweatshop is, â€Å"an employer who violates two or more of the federal or state labor laws governing compensation, child labor, occupational safety and health, industrial homework workers’ compensation, or industry registration.† In most case s, sweatshops are involved in human trafficking. In almost all cases, sweatshops in the United States are companies in the garment producing companies ranging from the mega companies to their contractors and subcontractors. Brief history The concept of sweatshops has its origin from the early 19th century in which case, an intermediary- normally referred to as the sweater- directed others in the process of producing clothing, under arduous conditions. The tailors would contract an intermediary who would in turn subcontract another intermediary ultimately; the subcontracted sweater would engage the worker at piecework for each garment. The intermediary would make profit by looking for desperate workers whose payments were minimal and end up paying least per unit of labor. The term sweater for the intermediary and sweating system for the process of subcontracting characterized earlier works by critics of this system. In the last half of the century, sweatshops had attracted many peopl e to the growing cities immigrants being from neighboring countries being most among the numbers. The exploitation of workers by the sweating system was unopposed by other parties for a short while. In the late 19th century, a party named National Anti-Sweating League founded in Australia and a few years later, another body with the same name started in the UK to fight against the abuse of workers by the sweating system. The success of these two lead to formation of other parties to defend the rights of the sweatshop workers. Ultimately, this made the existence of sweatshops rare especially in the original sense but did not eliminate them. History has proved that sweatshops are a difficult issue to deal with since it is first an economic issue. Arguments for sweatshops Thefight surrounding sweatshops has taken two sides with one group advocating for them while another fighting against them. Both groups have put forward arguments to support their views on the issue.Advertising L ooking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The proponents based their first argument on the economic theory of comparative advantage in which case they argue that international trade will work for the good of both parties. This therefore means that as the developing countries lack the technology of production employed in the developed countries, they should employ what they have for production of those goods. About the working conditions, they are adamant that they are better than what they would have. According to the proponents, the sweatshops provide a better substitution to other activities like street prostitution, trash picking, and the like. According to them, it has made the lives of the workers at least better than if they did not employ them. Anti-sweatshops arguments Thefirst argument from the opposing side of sweatshops is that, most workers in the industry are unable to buy some o f the goods they make even though they are commonplace commodities. According to them, economic development would result from other activities as opposed to sweatshops. Another argument is the aspect of violation of the labor laws, connection with human trafficking and child labor, which leads them to lead slave-like lives with the vulnerability of abuse and sexual harassment from the employers. A case in San Francisco Companies can be deceiving when you listen to the ideas and slogans shouted from the management desk. Indeed, many companies known by the public to be socially responsible in contrast violate the labor laws including the minimum wage requirement. Esprit- a company known for its garments made from organically grown cottons and wools tinted with natural dyes- is such a company (Udesky, ESPRIT: Sweatshops Behind the Labels ). By 1994, the management had played consumer level politics and it worked perfectly in promoting the company as socially responsible. On the other s ide, the companies play politics at the production level in that even though they invest in community-based projects, in their quest to minimize the cost of labor, they result to sweatshops that violate the labor laws, their behavior going beyond irresponsibility meaning that at time the workers are not even paid. Fighting sweatshops The fight against sweatshops has not come without pains. In 2005, the San Francisco Chronicles reports that the number of garment workers in the bay area had dropped to 3500 from the 30000 that worked there in 1982 and the 12000 in 2002. According to the report, Esprit and other two largest garment manufacturers in San Francisco had their production carried out in other nations. The closure of the local factories implies the level of job insecurity of the garment workers and the struggles the subcontractors have to face. The reason for this shift to offshore production is the expiry of the global system of quotas, which had provided restrictions for clo thing coming in from member countries of the WTO.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Sweatshops Development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This shift to offshore production should not be taken to mean non- existence of sweatshops in San Francisco. Reportedly, in February 2007, the department of labor forced Reuben’s Garment Cutting and Marking Company to pay $66,066 withheld from 57 employees. Allegedly, the contractor did not record the number of hours the employees worked, paid the on Saturdays, and denied them overtime (Santa Clara University n.d.). Conclusion Ultimately, it is of great importance to note that the fight against sweatshops has not been easy. The battle started back in the 1th century but in the 21st century, it remains to be a problem in the society. The fight has not been without pains for we consider the contradicting interest of the owners of the factories and that of the gov ernment to protect its people and the economy. The formulation of laws to address the problem has yielded uncomely response from the factory owners by them investing in other countries. Those who did not close their factories are still violating the labor law requirements and abusing their workers. In San Francisco, these factories still exist and even though they operate as underground factories; they still close and reopen at times. This existence calls for the government especially the department of labor to act towards the elimination of these factories. Works Cited Santa Clara University. â€Å"US States News.† n.d. Web. Udesky, Laurie. â€Å"ESPRIT: Sweatshops behind the Labels.† n.d. 30 Jan. 2012 This research paper on Sweatshops Development was written and submitted by user Ronald I. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Constitutional Safeguards in India Essays

Constitutional Safeguards in India Essays Constitutional Safeguards in India Paper Constitutional Safeguards in India Paper Constitutional Safeguards In India, the National Constitution of 1950 or any other Constitutional document does not define the word Minority. The Constitution only refers to Minorities and speaks of those based on religion or language. In the Constitution of India, the Preamble (as amended in 1976) declares the State to be Secular, and this is of special relevance for the Religious Minorities. Equally relevant for them, especially, is the prefatory declaration of the Constitution in its Preamble that all citizens of India are to be secured liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship and equality of status and of opportunity. The Constitution of India has provided two types of safe-guards -general and specific to safeguard various interests of the minorities. In the first category are those provisions that are equally enjoyed by both groups. The provisions ensure justice- social, economic and political equality to all. The second category consists of provisions meant specifically for the protection of particular interests of minorities. peoples right to equality before the law and equal protection of the laws; * prohibition of discrimination against citizens on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth; * authority of State to make any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens (besides the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes); * citizens right to equality of opportunity in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State and prohibition in this regard of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Authority of State to make any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State; * Peoples freedom of conscience and right to freely profess, practice and propagate religion subject to public order, morality and other Fundamental Rights; * Authority of State to make law for regulating or restricting any economic financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice, and for providing for social welfare and reform; * Authority of State to make laws for throwing open of Hindu, Sikh, Jain or Buddhist religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of the respective communities; * Sikh communitys right of wearing and carrying of kirpans ; * Right of every religious denomination or any section thereof subject to public order, morality and health to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable proposes, manage its own affairs of religion, and own and acquire movabl e immovable property and administer it in accordance with law; * Peoples freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion; * Peoples freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in educational institutions wholly maintained, recognized, or aided by the State; * Right of any section of the citizens to conserve its distinct language, script or culture * Restriction on denial of admission to any citizen, to any educational institution maintained or aided by the State, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them; * Right of all Religious and Linguistic Minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice; and * Freedom of Minority-managed educational institutions from discrimination in the matter of receiving aid from the State. Part IV of the Constitution of India, containing non-justifiable Directive Principles of State Policy, includes the following provisions having significant implicat ions for the Minorities: Obligation of the State to endeavor to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities amongst individuals and groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations; * Obligation of State to endeavor to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India; * Obligation of State to promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people (besides Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes; and * Obligation of State to take steps for prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle. Part IV-A of the Constitution, relating to Fundamental Duties, applies in full to all citizens, including those belonging to Minorities and of special relevance for the Minorities are the following provisions in this Part: * Citizens duty to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; and * Citizens duty to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture. Some other provisions of the Constitution having special relevance and implications for the Minorities are: * Official obligation to pay out of the consolidated funds of the States of Kerala and Tamilnadu 46. 5 and 13. lakh rupees respectively to the local Dewasom Funds for the maintenance of Hindu temples and shrines in the territories of the erstwhile State of Travancore-Cochin; * Special provision relating to the language spoken by a section of the population of any State; * Provision for facilities for instruction in m other-tongue at primary stage; * Provision for a Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities and his duties; * Special provision with respect to Naga religious or social practices, customary law and procedure, and administration of civil and criminal justice involving decisions according to Naga customary law. * Identical special provision for the Mizos; and * Provision relating to continuation in force of pre-Constitution laws until altered or repealed or amended by a competent legislature or other competent authority - Constitution of India/Part IV Article 36Â  {Definition} In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, the State has the same meaning as in Part III. - [edit]Article 37Â  {Application of the principles contained in this Part} The provisions contained in this Part shall not be enforced by any court, but the principles therein laid down are nevertheless fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws. - [edit]Article 38Â  {State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people} 1. The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life. 2. The State shall, in particular, strive to minimise the inequalities in income, and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities, not only amongst individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations. - [edit]Article 39Â  {Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State} The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing a. hat the citizen, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood; b. that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good; c. that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and mean s of production to the common detriment; d. that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women; e. that the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength; f. hat children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Article 39AÂ  {Equal justice and free legal aid} The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice, on a basis of equal opportunity, and shall, in particular, provide free legal aid, by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way, to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. - edit]Article 40Â  {Organisation of village panchayats} The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government. - [edit]Article 41Â  {Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases} The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want. - edit]Article 42Â  {Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief} The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. - [edit]Article 43Â  {Living wage, etc. , for workers} The State shall endeavor to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way, to all workers agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, cond itions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative basis in rural areas. Article 43AÂ  {Participation of workers in management of industries} The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organisation engaged in any industry. - [edit]Article 44Â  {Uniform civil code for the citizen} The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. - [edit]Article 45Â  {Provision for free and compulsory education for children} The State shall endeavor to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. - edit]Article 46Â  {Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections} The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in p articular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. - [edit]Article 47Â  {Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health} The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purpose of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. - edit]Article 48Â  {Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry} The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall, in particular, take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter, of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle. Article 48AÂ  {Protection and improv ement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life} The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. - [edit]Article 49Â  {Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance} It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest, declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance, from spoliation, disfigurement, destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be. [edit]Article 50Â  {Separation of judiciary from executive} The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. - [edit]Article 51Â  {Promotion of international peace and security} The State shall endeavour to a. promote international peace and security; b. maintain just and honourable relations between nations; c. foster respect for international law and treaty ob ligations in the dealings of organised people with one another; and d. encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Cat Food Industry In The UK

Cat Food Industry In The UK By using environmental analysis, it is possible for organizations to recognize existing opportunities and threats for companies, define strategies to best utilizing opportunities and also to minimize the bad consequences of threats (Arabi & Parsaeian, 2001). And the most important, the analysis can provide a rational future prediction as a base for future strategy adjustment. The company can forecast the consumer tends in next decade and rearrange its products in order to capture the volatile market share in a long-term perspective. The remote environment has the origin of factors that influencing operating environment. In industry-level analysis, it is necessary to analyze a macro environment of a company and access its performance of competitors responding to external elements. The object of this paper is to analyze remote environment and operating environment of cat food industry at United Kingdom. Part Two will be industry definitions. The industry background will be introduced in Part three at three levels, global market, Western Europe market and UK market. Part Four will be remote environment analysis by using PEST model, followed by operating environment analysis in Part Five by using Porter’s Five Forces Model. 2. Industry and Product definition200 211 Wikipedia defines Pet food as plant or animal material intended for consumption by pets. ( Mintel defines pet food as any foods that are specifically formulated and marketed for pets, including treats (Mintel, 2009). In legislation, â€Å"pet food† means a feeding stuff for pet animals. To achieve the appropriate balance of nutrients pet food, manufacturers blend mixtures of ingredients including meat and fish, with vegetables, cereals, vitamins and minerals to produce foods that will satisfy the nutritional requirements of a pet(PFMA). It is typically sold in pet stores or supermarkets. And pet food is divided into three categories (Figure 2): dog foo d, cat food and other pet food (i.e. fish food, bird food). Pet Food sells in the form that either prepared or non-prepared. Figure 2 Pet Food Segment In this paper, cat food intends to be defined as food product specifically formulated for feeding of cats. For the purposes of this paper, some further definitions used by Mintel reports are as follows: Wet cat food ‘C including wet canned cat food with a moisture content of 60-85% and semi-moist food with a moisture content of 25-30% and includes complete foods. Dry cat food ‘C has a moisture content of around 10% and includes complete foods Treats and Mixers’C food supplement for cat. 3. Cat food industry Background 200 475 3.1 Global Cat Food Market Figure 3 (Source: Euromonitor International) According to data from Euromonitor, in 2009, the Global retail value sales of cat food reach US19.6 billion dollars, at a growth rate of 4%. Although Dog food continues to occupy nearly half of pet food and pet care market, cat food market ‘posted a comparable CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 5 % during the period 2004-2008’. This indicates that the economic downturn had slight impact on this industry. However, the rising rates of house repossessions contribute to the decline in the pet populations, especially in western economies. The recession caused the lack of consumer confidence which lead to backward sales of the whole cat food market at 2008, but the global market is still growing in 2009 as the ongoing trend of pet humanization that ‘consumers want value-added products that extend both the quality and length of the pet’s life’.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 3

Communication - Essay Example Interpersonal communication entails the process of using feelings, ideas, and thoughts to initiate and develop relationships with other members of the society. Initiating and developing relationships follow three systematic stages. The first stage involves understanding another person’s situation. This enables us to understand the context and perspective from which the other person is speaking. The next step involves responding to the message in an appropriate manner. This entails employing the right tone and emotional expression based on the understanding of the person communicating (Wood 72). After communicating the response in the right manner, the respondent should be able to achieve the objective of communicating. This entails the establishment of a common understanding between the subject parties. Good interpersonal communication skills help in conflict resolution contexts. Interpersonal conflicts arise when people reaches a disagreement over their convictions, beliefs, ideas and desires. Interpersonal conflict can present serious consequences to the parties involved. Therefore, the best solution on resolving a conflict is by employing effective interpersonal communication skills. In reality, conflict leads to emotional stress, hurting feelings and situational disappointments. When any conflict is handled in an unhealthy way, it might result in irreparable damages in social relationships. Therefore, the best method of resolving any conflict is applying some ethical principles while striving to reach a compromise. One of the essential ethical elements during conflict resolution is empathy. Empathy entails putting oneself into another person’s shoes. Thought empathy allows one to understand what another person is saying. Feeling empathy allows someone to acknowledge how another person feels. Therefore, empathy facilitates healthy communication when resolving a conflict. The other ethical element is exploration. Exploration allows one to enquir e thoroughly on the other person’s thoughts and feelings. Stroking is also essential during conflict cases. Stroking involves complimenting the person by making respectful and positive opinions about him/her. To resolve a conflict successfully, I align myself to these three ethical aspects, which are empathy, exploration, and stroking. The definition of gender roles and other aspects associated with gender and society depends on an individual’s social background. The beliefs and convictions held by an individual concerning the social roles expected from different genders influences social relationships to a substantial extent. On my part, I expect females to be submissive, and accommodative to different ideas and situations. The other factor that may affect my communication is ethnicity. Ethnicity brings about prejudice and discrimination within the society. Discrimination entails behaviors directed towards people from a different ethnic background while prejudice invo lves holding irrational and inflexible attitudes towards members of another ethnic group. Prejudice influences communication whereby negative prejudice results in discrimination. Therefore, ethnicity might affect my judgments and decisions during communication in a positive or a negative way. The other factor than influences communication is culture. Culture is comprised of behaviors, beliefs and other social characteristics that define a particular social group. Though people would like to define themselves individually, the society conforms an individual to some set standards of beliefs, values and behavioral norms. These inbred cultural principles in an individual influence his/her relationship with people within a culturally diverse environment. As a

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Traditional Preoperative Fasting And ASA Preoperative Fasting Research Proposal

Traditional Preoperative Fasting And ASA Preoperative Fasting - Research Proposal Example In addition, the study also aims to identify if there is a significant difference between shorter-duration fasting and longer-duration fasting in prevention of the risk for aspiration. The study would intend to benefit the patients as discomforts experienced during fasting such as thirst, hunger, pain, nausea, vomiting, and anxiety (Brady, Kinn & Stuart, 2003, n.p.) will be addressed in the study. Theoretical Framework No appropriate theoretical frameworks were identified. Instead, illustrate the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal system during fasting prior to a preoperative procedure. Discuss complications such as aspiration and how does and when will it possibly occur in most instances (Soreide, Eriksson, Hirlekar, Eriksson, Henneberg, Sandin, & Raeder, 2005, 1041). Literature Review – how extensive, steps, evidence of nursing practice Extensive review of literatures is necessary in order to support the hypothesis and justify the findings of the study. Steps nec essary are identification of the key concepts/phrases to search such as â€Å"fasting in the preoperative period† and â€Å"ASA guidelines in preoperative period.† After the right key search, proper search strategy of related literatures will be made in electronic databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists from relevant articles in the preoperative fasting. Literatures must include findings during medical practice in the 90’s and year 2000 and up to determine advances made in the practice of perioperative fasting and to analyze the outcome of both traditional and ASA preoperative fasting guidelines. Google scholar, PubMed, Medline, and Wiley Online Library contain electronic sources with an array of related journals, studies, and literatures that can... No appropriate theoretical frameworks were identified. Instead, illustrate the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal system during fasting prior to a preoperative procedure. Discuss complications such as aspiration and how do and when will it possibly occur in most instances (Hirlekar, Eriksson, Henneberg, Sandin, & Raeder, 2005, 1041).Literature Review – how extensive, steps, evidence of nursing practiceAn extensive review of literature is necessary in order to support the hypothesis and justify the findings of the study. Steps necessary are the identification of the key concepts/phrases to search such as "fasting in the preoperative period" and "ASA guidelines in the preoperative period." After the right key search, proper search strategy of related literature will be made in electronic databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists from relevant articles in the preoperative fasting. Literature must include findings during medical practice in the 90’s and year 2000 and up to determine advances made in the practice of perioperative fasting and to analyze the outcome of both traditional and ASA preoperative fasting guidelines. Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, and Wiley Online Library contain electronic sources with an array of related journals, studies, and literature that can support the study also with evidence-based nursing practice. Sample Characteristics/ Sampling MethodA randomized controlled trial or sampling method will be used in the pursuit of the study.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Elements of gambling Essay Example for Free

Elements of gambling Essay There are two elements of Gambling, including game of chance and gambling mentality. Chance means people cannot control the outcome of an event but with possibility of winning. Player wagers money on irreversible bet in which the outcome relies on chance. Gambling mentality means the willing to take risk. To gamble on something is to take a risk on something in which the stake is involved. Pathological Approach to problem gambling Problem gambling is defined as pathological gambling under APA DSMVI. Pathological gambling is an impulsive control disorder in which there is a chronic and progressive failure to resist impulses to gamble. The concept of addiction of gambling is similar to alcohol and drug addiction in APA model. Gambling is a kind of process addiction. Gamblers enjoy the excitement, tension and anticipation over than the outcome of a gambling event. Gamblers described having the feeling of â€Å"high† similar to that experienced form cocaine in â€Å"outer-body†. There is a dominance in which people have intense preoccupation with gambling to the exclusion of other interests. There is also a problem of tolerance. It means gamblers will eventually spend more money than they intended on gambling, they will lose track of time and control over money betted. In other words, they will gamble from simple to complex high risk and high return betting. We can also see the gamblers have withdrawal symptoms, like irritable, nervous angry and restless. Action gambler Mahjong Tends to be arrogant Desire to control Self-centered, insecure, disregard for authority Easily frustrated, impatient and demanding Highly competitive but given up on the conventional way of competition Attracted to competitive games and those required skills Likely men who started their gambling activities at an earlier state. Gambling gives them a sense of self-enhancement and self-expression Escape gambler Lack of confidence / no self-esteem due to insufficient knowledge and skills Games with no skills involved, e. g. slot machine because no one will judge them Likely to be women who began gambling much later in life than action gamblers Gambling is an emotional reaction to whatever personal or relationship issues they are trying to escape from. Later pathological explanations on problem gambling All pathological gamblers were involved in social gambling for a period of time before they lost control over gambling A significant stressor or greater exposure to gambling often precipitated the sudden onset of pathological gambling. Modern Pathological explanations on problem gambling Modern pathology theories do not argue for determinism but instead rely on the concept of probability- in the sense of â€Å"the relative frequency of occurrence†, â€Å"relative chances of happening†- explain pathological gambling. E. g. Medical Model Medical Model-BlumeAn explanation for deviant behavior that locates its source within the individual and assumes that the behavior is the result of physiological, constitutional, or organic characteristics of the person interacting with the environment. Different psychological and physiological causes of gambling:1. Genetic abnormality that provide a predisposition for disease 1 / 2 2. Mental illness- resulting from obsession or a compulsion3. Abnormal level of dopamine=/=occurrence of sickness It depends on its interaction with other risk factors e. g gender, family influence, ageSolution: Counseling and financial management Weakness: Classical -gt; Ambiguous judgement.